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The population structure of Clostridium tetani deduced from its pan-genome.

TitleThe population structure of Clostridium tetani deduced from its pan-genome.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsChapeton-Montes, D, Plourde, L, Bouchier, C, Ma, L, Diancourt, L, Criscuolo, A, Popoff, MRobert, Brüggemann, H
JournalSci Rep
Volume9
Issue1
Pagination11220
Date Published2019 08 02
ISSN2045-2322
KeywordsClostridium tetani, Collagenases, Conserved Sequence, Genome, Bacterial, Neurotoxins, Phylogeny, Species Specificity, Tetanus Toxin, Virulence Factors
Abstract

Clostridium tetani produces a potent neurotoxin, the tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) that is responsible for the worldwide neurological disease tetanus, but which can be efficiently prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid. Until now only one type of TeNT has been characterized and very little information exists about the heterogeneity among C. tetani strains. We report here the genome sequences of 26 C. tetani strains, isolated between 1949 and 2017 and obtained from different locations. Genome analyses revealed that the C. tetani population is distributed in two phylogenetic clades, a major and a minor one, with no evidence for clade separation based on geographical origin or time of isolation. The chromosome of C. tetani is highly conserved; in contrast, the TeNT-encoding plasmid shows substantial heterogeneity. TeNT itself is highly conserved among all strains; the most relevant difference is an insertion of four amino acids in the C-terminal receptor-binding domain in four strains that might impact on receptor-binding properties. Other putative virulence factors, including tetanolysin and collagenase, are encoded in all genomes. This study highlights the population structure of C. tetani and suggests that tetanus-causing strains did not undergo extensive evolutionary diversification, as judged from the high conservation of its main virulence factors.

DOI10.1038/s41598-019-47551-4
Alternate JournalSci Rep
PubMed ID31375706
PubMed Central IDPMC6677821